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Defects of pronunciation, to be corrected or accepted, making peace with oneself and with one's own imperfections, since everyone has their own. There are various types and linked to various causes, some "innate", others due to bad habits not corrected at the right time. Without wanting to create complexes for anyone, indeed, a full uncritical spirit, let's see what the major defects of pronunciation.
In truth, we often speak of dyslalias, word that indicates those phoneme articulation disorders caused by functional or organic alterations that involve lips, tongue or teeth. We speak of dyslalia when there is a letter that is not well pronounced, as happens with the “r moscia” or with sigmatism, better known as "lisca", but the dyslalias can also concern several letters.
Defects of pronunciation: what they are
The organic dyslalias they are caused by malformations or by lesions of the articulatory system, the functional ones instead originate in an incorrect setting of one or more sectors of the phonatory system which led to its misuse. There are also audiogenic dyslalias, due to real diseases that prevent a good perception of sounds which, consequently, does not pronounce the various phonemes correctly.
Speech defects can also be classified according to the area where the incorrect setting occurs, then we have the labial ones, which affect the letters p, b, m, the dental ones, which "dirty" the labio-dental, linguo-dental, linguo-alveolar phonemes, the lingual ones, which affect almost all phonemes, and the palatal ones, focused on his of the ce of the g.
If we classify speech defects by looking at the sounds that are being distorted, we find sigmatism ("s, z, sc"), rotaxism ("r"), labdacism ("l"), deltacism ("d"), and kappacism (guttural sounds).
Defects of pronunciation in adults
Not only children can have speech defects that they can also drag on into adulthood or be developed in it for example by a paresis of the tongue or of the face. There are adults with dyslalias like sigmatism, rotaxism, because during childhood there was no intervention to correct them, it may also happen that anatomical alterations not treated in due time lead to pronunciation defects.
Another case is that of tooth loss due to ... age reasons. Even in these circumstances there are speech defects. From time to time it is necessary to evaluate the more appropriate speech therapy treatment, with an expert, it is usually divided into two moments, the first of "gymnastics" of the organs concerned, the other of phonetic setting. If, on the other hand, you have a low voice, another treatment should be provided and there are also exercises and natural remedies for low voice,ad hoc
Defects of pronunciation: children
Often, it is useless to deny it, speech defects mature during childhood, without necessarily something serious happening. Enough for example excessive prolonged use of a pacifier or bottlethumb sucking and other similar habits to develop sigmatism and zetacism affecting the "s" and "z" respectively. There are rarer cases in which the dyslalias are due to problems with the articulation of the apical phonemes due to a bad chewing movement never correct and that affects the pronunciation of the letters “l, n, r, ci”.
Defects of pronunciation: exercises
Sometimes more, sometimes less, the exercises can work and it is always good to try to contact a specialist to understand if with a little training pronunciation can improve. When proposing them to children, it is better not to schedule sessions that are too long or too continuous, to avoid them getting bored.
Another aspect to pay attention to is that of level of exercises which, if too elaborate, can make the child feel frustrated. Better always to perform a few, regularly and in a playful way, in front of the mirror.
Defects of pronunciation: games
Play is the key to this genre training that otherwise risks being seen as real torture. An example of "playful" therapy is one that is based on riddles also invented ad hoc from scratch according to the words to be addressed, increasing the level but always preserving the lightness of the game.
Defects of pronunciation: book
More serious, certainly not for children, but for those who want to deepen the subject on a more technical level, is the book "To correct pronunciation defects "which focuses on the A.P.I. (Listen-Try-Learn) for perceptual-articulatory training. It is also available on Amazon and illustrates a possible graduated path for correct speech defects in children, with original and fun exercises which is not always easy to invent yourself with the certainty that they are effective. . Doing it randomly can give rise to problems, not serious, but the risk of a child getting bored is high when dealing with these kinds of topics and games. Better to have a rich source of ideas on hand
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