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We are used to talking about the usual planets of the solar system that we studied at school from an early age and perhaps we do not realize how much the panorama we can see in space has changed thanks to the many scientists who dedicate entire lives to the discovery of new planets. So today we want to talk about strange planets outside the solar system to understand what we find non-trivial in our sky. Every so often some space explorer discovers exoplanets such as happened with "Toi 270 b", "c" and "d", cryptic acronyms that remind us how many are those who belong to the list: over 4 thousand, discovered above all by the NASA and ESA telescopes.
Let's go to discover, indeed, to rediscover some of the weirdest planets that have been seen and studied in recent times, planets that have absurd weather conditions or unlivable atmospheres. They are planets a bit fictional but they really exist and help us better imagine what it means to be part of an immense universe.
Strange planets outside the solar system: Toi 270
The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, said Tess and built by NASA, he has seen numerous planets and is doing a good job. In one year it found over 24 confirmed exoplanets and 993 candidates. And also Toi 270 b and c and d. These exoplanets got noticed because they caused the star's light to vary Toi 270 as they pass. This is a small star (less than 40% of our Sun) is south of the Painter constellation, 73 light years from Earth. When the orbit of a planet leads it to stand between the star and the observer, it will momentarily decrease its brightness. It is called the transit technique and has been very successful.
The scientists noticed the decreases in brightness and estimated the presence of these exoplanets by then measuring the variations in light and crossing them with the mass of the star, its position and other characteristics. Toi 270 b, c and d have thus sprung up. The closest to the star it is b: it completes an orbit every 3.4 days, it is 13 times closer to its parent star than our Mercury. On its surface, a surface temperature of 254 degrees celsius is measured. The other two look more like Neptune which has mostly gas and fewer rocks.
Although far from us and little known, these three exoplanets are in fact very large, incomparable to the Earth, so it is worth considering them. Their size - more than twice the size of the Earth - is strange and makes us speculate that there is a category of planets between super-earths and sub-Neptunian planets.
Strange planets out of the solar system: infernal planet
Here it makes a infernal heat and the name fits perfectly. On this planet on the surface there are around 3,780 degrees, a temperature that is compatible with the presence of iron and titanium in the atomic state in the atmosphere. This planet is called Kelt 9b, is a gas giant 2.8 times larger than Jupiter and located in the constellation of Cygnus, 650 light years from our planet. In addition to the temperature, it is also particular because it orbits a star twice as large and hotter than the Sun.
Strange planets outside the solar system: lethal rain
From the scorching sun to the lethal rain to speak of a planet located in the constellation of the Fox, about 63 light years away from Earth, and located in the constellation of the Volpetta. This exoplanet is called HD 189733 b and has similarities with the Earth but it is not identical because it is impossible to live there. On its surface there are gusts of wind at two kilometers per second while temperatures reaching 900 degrees. I forgot to specify that drops of molten glass fall from the sky and not just drops of fresh water.
Strange planets outside the solar system: Water world
In some places in the universe there is the possibility, albeit very rare, of having theliquid water. For example, there is a lot of it on this planet, bikes like Gliese 1214 b. It is located in the constellation of Ophiuchus, it is a super-earth without land, which could be considered an ocean planet. It is 48 light years away from our planet.
Strange planets outside the solar system: deep pink
It is not known how it was born but this planet, GJ 504 b, has a very interesting feature. Seen up close it shines by a deep pink tending towards magenta. It is very hot and in fact the pink would be linked to the heat that it emanates following its birth.
Weird planets outside the solar system: carbon planet
There are some compound planets in carbon prevalence, this is not the case with the Earth which has a crust with a lot of oxygen and silicon. 55 Cancers it is just 40 light years from Earth and from the analyzes carried out with Hubble it seems to be a carbon planet. On the surface the temperatures are 2,400 degrees.
Strange planets outside the solar system: giant rings
We end with special rings that are the envy of Saturn. Going out of the galaxy meets fantastic performances. The J1407 b is an exoplanet called "Saturn on steroids" due to its ring system being about 200 times larger than that of Saturn, with an estimated radius of about 90 million kilometers, and a total mass comparable to that of the Earth.